PH is a measure of the relative number of molecules of hydroxyl radicals and free hydrogen in the fluid. Liquids with a higher content of hydroxyl groups are considered to be alkaline or basic, while a liquid with a higher level of free hydrogen ions are considered acidic. Clean water at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, has a pH of 7.0 and is considered neutral. This means that there is an equal number of hydrogen atoms and free of hydrogen atoms. All other measurements are based on a neutral standard 7.0. Acid and alkali can be used to counter each other in the liquid, to obtain a neutral balance.
The scale of pH is in the range from 0.0 to 14.0. The lower the dimension, the more acidic the solution, the higher the dimension, the more alkaline . Measurement of 6.0 would be considered slightly acidic, whereas a measurement of 2.0 would be considered extremely acidic. The best way to compare acid in the solution is the statement, “how many times as much acid” one liquid compared to another. The easiest way to do this using the logarithm . PH scale based on logarytmie, which gives us the standard on how many times acidic solution is neutral. Each increase of 1 point means that the liquid is 10 times more alkaline, and each step was 1 point down, this means that the liquid is 10 times more acidic.
Temperature may also play a role in pH measurement. In warmer temperatures with a neutral pH is lower than 7.0. This is because the reaction forward autodysocjacji water endotermicznie faworyzowana, and the rate of ionization in water increases in warmer temperatures. Increased ionization rate increases the concentration of hydrogen atoms, which reduces the pH level. This means that at 40 degrees Celsius a neutral pH of 6.77 wynosiłby instead of 7.0.
The pH value
Regardless of what we look at pH in relation to plant growth or aquariums, the optimum level can be the difference between success and failure .
In agriculture , the pH will have an impact on everything from root development and the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil to prevent the development of fungi and plant diseases. While many plants can survive in different conditions and some plants can grow in more acidic or more alkaline soil, most plants prefer indifferent, slightly acidic soil for cultivation. The ideal range for most plants is from 6.0 to 6.5. When the reproduction has a high acidity, levels of manganese and aluminum can become toxic to plants. At the level of 7.0 or above minerals such as magnesium, phosphorus and calcium, may become unavailable.
In aquariums the maintenance of normal pH range can help you in developing Your fish. If you have a marine aquarium, slightly alkaline water in the range from 8.1 to 8.4 can offer your fish a natural antiseptic effect and help them in the fight against bacteria and diseases. It can also slow down the speed at which the ball is subjected to the lime . Observation of the change in the pH of the water can even give you early warning that your marine environment undergoes other changes.
Common methods of pH measurement
There are three main methods of measuring the pH of the solution: hydroxide method, colorimetric method and the cover electrode.
Method of hydrogen paper is based on a special paper called litmus test paper. Litmus paper is a simple paper filter material which has been treated with a mixture of natural dye obtained from various lichens. These dyes change color in response to the action of corrosive acids and alkaline solutions, usually red when exposed to acids and blue when exposed to the rules. Method paper peroxide is the oldest form of checking the pH, and cigarette has been used already in 1300 AD. Unfortunately, though, we may say that the solution is acidic or alkaline, does not give us an accurate measurement numeric .
Colorimetric method similar to the method paper, peroxide, because it uses the natural reaction of the color-changing chemical substances under the influence of acids and bases to determine the pH level. In this case, the reagent indicator, such as red phenolic and blue bromitymolowy are used to produce color. Instead of immersing the piece of paper in the solution and have the paper, changing color in the same way as in the case of paper, the peroxide, the chemical indicator are placed in a small sample of the fluid which is to be measured, and the sample changes color. A bit more precise than the method with the paper work on hydrogen, since the color and density of the fluid, can be compared to a color chart to obtain the numeric pH level.
Currently, the most common and most accurate way to measure pH at home and in the laboratory is the method, the cover electrode. This method uses a probe and a sensor that must be calibrated before use in the buffer solution pH. The device measures the decrease in the difference voltage between the reference electrode and the electrode of the measurement, and then converts these measurements into a numerical pH reading.