GPS (Global Positioning System) was originally developed for military applications and interviews public. It is a network of satellites orbiting the Earth at certain points and send signals from a bar for those using a GPS receiver, regardless of where they are on the planet .
In 1957, as well as the cold war became more intense, the Soviet Union sent Sputnik, the first artificial satellite. This prompted Us to assign a larger amount of money to own a project from the satellite, in 1960. The United States launched its first satellite system known as Transit. Transit consisted of five satellites, and would allow U.S. Navy ships to read their position every hour.
In 1967 Transit was replaced by the Timation satellite, which contain very accurate atomic clocks. The more precise is the clock of the satellites, the more accurate it can determine the location of the GPS receiver. In 1978-1985 GPS technology has developed rapidly, introducing a total of 11 new satellites.
When the Soviet Union shot down a Korean passenger plane in 1983 the Reagan administration decided that GPS is also used for civil applications. They will allow accurate determination of their location and limit the possibility of receiving in a limited area of someone else.
In mid-1993, the United States launched 24 Navstar satellites, thereby complementing the modern satellite GPS. At any time, 21 satellites are used to determine the location of the GPS receiver, while the three satellites are spares in the event of a satellite failure. Currently, the EU is setting up a GPS system Galileo, which will use a total of 30 satellites, of which 14 are already in orbit.
Why navigation is so important on sea
Marine navigation makes the world of Maritime transport is safer and more effective . Lenders ground transportation is easy to believe that GPS navigation is required only in the case when large ships at sea without land that can be used as a starting point, but it’s not . GPS that makes navigation on busy waterways and ports is more secure. Actually, GPS navigation is more critical when large ships enter the port, when the risk of collision with other ships and threats increases.
Looking at the numbers, it is easy to see that GPS navigation has led to the fact that the world of shipping safer. In science 1994 till 2010 years, when the use of GPS has become a standard on most ocean-going ships, the total loss of vessels over 500 gross tons fell from 180 per year to 60 per year. Highly sought after claims from accidents decreased from 520 per year in 1990. Up to 200 per year in 2010. And, most importantly, the number of deaths per year has declined from 450 in 1995. To 250 in 2010.
Also decreased the consequences for the environment. GPS use is also responsible for reducing the amount of oil spilled in the sea as a result of vessel accidents. In the 70-ies. the last century was noted in an average of 22 large spills of oil from ships, and in 1993. About 140 million tons of oil leaked from the ships. In 2011. Were shed only 1,000 tons of oil. This increase in safety and reduction of environmental impact is observed even in connection with the continued growth of trafficking in oceans .
The selection of marine GPS
Marine GPS receivers are available in all shapes and sizes that can make the right choice will be difficult for people that use them. Prior to choosing any GPS device it is better to take into consideration several important factors. First check the manufacturer’s specifications to see how many satellites using the device. Model with low cost can only be used with 12 satellites, which is enough for normal operation, but the 24 satellite system will be much more accurate .
We then need to think about whether the block cache, or one that is installed on the dashboard of the boat. If you have a small boat or pontoon probably be a hand model. But to some it may be hard to read, the screen is less than unity and, as a rule, they have reduced the comparability.
More GPS receivers installed good for those who like to watch on the big color screen, and I want to see a lot of information about the area. Many are also compatible with the detector and fish sonar . You żaglowymi boats and large yachts, which are pontoon, often require both types. Model manual operation is needed in emergency situations, when more, the ship must be evacuated.
Depending on how you want to add new maps to the device, maybe need a model that can be connected to the computer. This allows you to download new maps and move them directly to the internal memory of your GPS. Models that do not connect to the computer, they will require you to purchase maps containing maps of different regions of the world.
Some marine systems, GPS in particular, models) are considered nieprzypisujące. This means that show a compass, latitude and longitude to help You to determine the position, but not the real map. If you want to see the map that is displayed on the screen, select the system mapping.